2. Knowledge of the gendered pattern of intimate partner violence
The NCAS asked respondents about their knowledge of the gendered pattern of domestic violence.
While most Australians (64%) recognise that mainly men, or men more often, commit acts of domestic violence, the percentage who recognise this has dropped 7 percentage points since the 2013 NCAS.
Who is more likely to commit domestic violence?
Men are more likely than women to perpetrate intimate partner violence, and are more likely to use frequent, prolonged and extreme violence.1
Men are more likely than women to sexually assault their partner.2
Men are more likely than women to subject their partner to controlling and coercive behaviours.3
Women are more likely than men to use violence against their partner in self-defence or in response to a loss of control or dignity from ongoing violence or control by their partner.4
While most Australians (81%) recognise that women are more likely to suffer physical harm from domestic violence, the percentage who recognise this has dropped 5 percentage points since the 2013 NCAS.
Who is more likely to suffer physical harm from domestic violence?
Less than half (49%) of Australians recognise that levels of fear from domestic violence are worse for women, and there has been no statistically significant change since 2013. This is a 6% decline from 2009, when 55% of respondents recognised that levels of fear are worse for women.
Who is more likely to experience fear from domestic violence?
Women are more likely than men to report experiencing fear as a result of violence.
Understanding the patterns of intimate partner violence is important because it reflects knowledge of the nature, severity and dynamics of violence itself. The response to intimate partner violence from someone who believes this form of violence tends to be mutual violence between two people with equal power is likely to be very different to someone who understands that a large proportion of intimate partner violence involves unequal, gendered power dynamics. As well as impacting individuals’ responses to intimate partner violence, this understanding may influence the level of policy attention and resourcing given to address intimate partner violence affecting women, relative to that affecting men.
GO TO ATTITUDES TO GENDER EQUALITY
- Cox, P. (2015). Violence against women in Australia: Additional analysis of the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Personal Safety Survey, 2012. Sydney: ANROWS.
Bagshaw, D., Chung, D., Couch, M., Lilburn, S., & Wadham, B. (2000). Reshaping responses to domestic violence. Canberra: Office for the Status of Women, Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet.
Belknap, J., & Melton, H. (2005). Are heterosexual men also victims of intimate partner abuse? VAWnet National Electronic Network on Violence Against Women, Applied Research Forum. Retrieved 10 June 2018 from https://vawnet.org/material/are-heterosexual-men-also-victims-intimate-partner-abuse
Holtzworth-Munroe, A. (2005). Male versus female intimate partner violence: Putting controversial findings into context. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(5), 1120-1125.
Kimmel, M. S. (2012). The gender of desire: Essays on male sexuality. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
- Swan, S. C., Gambone, L. J., Van Horn, M. L., Snow, D. L., & Sullivan, T. P. (2012). Factor structures for aggression and victimization among women who used aggression against male partners. Violence Against Women, 18(9), 1045-1066.
- Caldwell, J. E., Swan, S. C., & Woodbrown, V. D. (2012). Gender differences in intimate partner violence outcomes. Psychology of Violence, 2(1), 42.
Hamberger, L. K., & Larsen, S. E. (2015). Men’s and women’s experience of intimate partner violence: A review of ten years of comparative studies in clinical samples; Part I. Journal of Family Violence, 30(6), 699-717.
- Holtzworth-Munroe, A. (2005). Male versus female intimate partner violence: Putting controversial findings into context. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(5), 1120-1125.
Cercone, J. J., Beach, S. R., & Arias, I. (2005). Gender symmetry in dating intimate partner violence: Does similar behavior imply similar constructs? Violence and Victims, 20(2), 207.
Dobash, R. E., Dobash, R. P., Cavanagh, K., & Lewis, R. (2004). Not an ordinary killer – Just an ordinary guy: When men murder an intimate woman partner. Violence Against Women, 10(6), 577-605.
Larance, L. Y., & Miller, S. L. (2016). In her own words: Women describe their use of force resulting in court-ordered intervention. Violence Against Women, 23(21), 1356-1559.
Mennicke, A., & Kulkarni, S. (2016). Understanding gender symmetry within an expanded partner violence typology. Journal of Family Violence, 31(8), 1013-1018.
Velonis, A. J. (2016). ‘He never did anything you typically think of as abuse’: Experiences with violence in controlling and non-controlling relationships in a non-agency sample of women. Violence Against Women, 22(9), 1031-1054.
- Belknap, J., & Melton, H. (2005). Are heterosexual men also victims of intimate partner abuse? VAWnet National Electronic Network on Violence Against Women, Applied Research Forum. Retrieved 10 June 2018 from https://vawnet.org/material/are-heterosexual-men-also-victims-intimate-partner-abuse
Myhill, A. (2015). Measuring coercive control: What can we learn from national population surveys? Violence Against Women, 21(3), 355-375.
- Australian Domestic and Family Violence Death Review Network. (2018). Australian Domestic and Family Violence Death Review Network: Data report. Sydney: Domestic Violence Review Team.
Chan, A., & Payne, J. (2013). Homicide in Australia: 2008-09 to 2009-10 National Homicide Monitoring Program Annual Report. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.